Read the following passage from a text about linguistics.
Before the twentieth century, the term "philology" was commonly used to refer to the science of language, which was then predominantly historical in focus. However, this focus has shifted and the term "philology" is now generally used for the "study of a language's grammar, history and literary tradition", especially in the United States. The term "linguistics" is now the usual academic term in English for the scientific study of language.
Linguistics concerns itself with describing and explaining the nature of human language. Relevant to this are the questions of what is universal to language, how language can vary, and how human beings come to know languages. Humans achieve competence in whatever language is spoken around them when growing up, with apparently little need for explicit conscious instruction.
Linguists assume that the ability to acquire and use language is an innate, biologically-based potential of human beings, similar to the ability to walk. It is generally agreed that there are no strong genetic differences underlying the differences between languages: an individual will acquire whatever language(s) he or she is exposed to as a child, regardless of parentage or ethnic origin.
According to the text, are the following statements true, false or not given?
- Up until the 1900s, the science of language was usually referred to as 'philology'.
- In order to learn a language, children need a significant amount of instruction.
- Research has shown that humans have an inbuilt capacity for language learning.
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